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Insomnia is the inability to sleep or abnormal wakefulness. It is the most common sleep disorder. It occurs due to a systemic illness or mental conditions such as psychiatric problems, alcohol addiction, and drug addiction.
Hypersomnia is the excess sleep or excess need to sleep. It occurs because of the lesion in the floor of the third ventricle, brain tumors, encephalitis, chronic bronchitis and disease of muscles. Hypersomnia also occurs in endocrine disorders such as myxedema and diabetes insipidus.
NARCOLEPSY AND CATAPLEXY:
Narcolepsy is the sudden attack of uncontrollable sleep. Cataplexy is a sudden outburst of emotion. Both diseases are due to hypothalamic disorders.
SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME:
Sleep apnea is the temporary stoppage of breathing repeatedly during sleep. Sleep apnea syndrome is the disorder that involves fluctuations in the rate and force of respiration during REM sleep with the short apneic episode. It occurs in obesity, myxedema, enlargement of tonsil and lesion in the brainstem. Common features of this syndrome are loud snoring, restless movements, nocturnal insomnia, daytime sleepiness, morning headache, and fatigue. In severe conditions, hypertension, right heart failure, and stroke occur.
Nightmare is the condition during sleep that is characterized by a sense of extreme uneasiness or discomfort or by frightful dreams.
Discomfort is felt as of some heavy weight on the stomach or chest or as the uncontrolled movement of the body. After a period of extreme anxiety, the subject wakes with a troubled state of mind.
It occurs during REM sleep. Nightmare occurs due to improper food intake, digestive disorders or nervous disorders.
It also occurs during drug withdrawal or alcohol withdrawal.
Nocturnal enuresis is the involuntary voiding of urine at the bed. It is also called bedwetting. It is common in children.
A night terror is a disorder similar to a nightmare. It is common in children. It is also called pavor nocturnus or sleep terror. The child awakes screaming in a state of fright and semi-consciousness. The child cannot recollect the attack in the morning. There is no psychological disturbance.
Somnambulism is getting up from the bed and walking in the state of sleep. It is also called walking during sleep or sleepwalking. It varies from just sitting up in the bed to walking around with eyes open and performing some major complete task. The episode lasts for a few minutes to half an hour. It occurs during non REM sleep.
MOVEMENT DISORDERS DURING SLEEP:
Movement disorders occur immediately after falling asleep. Sleep start or hypnic jerk is a common movement disorder during sleep. It is characterized by sudden jerks of arms and legs. Sleep start is a physiological form of clones. Other movement disorders are teeth grinding (bruxism), banging the head and restless moment of arms or legs.
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