Mother | Wikipedia audio article

This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:

00:01:25 1 Biological mother
00:03:13 2 Non-biological mother
00:04:25 2.1 Surrogate mother
00:05:09 2.2 Motherhood in same-sex relationships
00:06:07 3 Social role
00:09:35 4 Health and safety issues
00:11:21 5 Religious
00:12:10 6 Mother-offspring violence
00:13:11 7 In art
00:13:53 8 Synonyms and translations
00:16:28 8.1 Etymology
00:17:06 9 Notable mothers

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“The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.”
– Socrates


A mother is the female parent of a child. Mothers are women who inhabit or perform the role of bearing some relation to their children, who may or may not be their biological offspring. Thus, dependent on the context, women can be considered mothers by virtue of having given birth, by raising their child(ren), supplying their ovum for fertilisation, or some combination thereof. Such conditions provide a way of delineating the concept of motherhood, or the state of being a mother. Women who meet the third and first categories usually fall under the terms ‘birth mother’ or ‘biological mother’, regardless of whether the individual in question goes on to parent their child. Accordingly, a woman who meets only the second condition may be considered an adoptive mother, and those who meet only the third a surrogacy mother.
The above concepts defining the role of mother are neither exhaustive nor universal, as any definition of ‘mother’ may vary based on how social, cultural, and religious roles are defined. The parallel conditions and terms for males: those who are (typically biologically) fathers do not, by definition, take up the role of fatherhood. Mother and fatherhood are not limited to those who are or have parented. Women who are pregnant may be referred to as expectant mothers or mothers-to-be, though such applications tend to be less readily applied to (biological) fathers or adoptive parents. The process of becoming a mother has been referred to as “matrescence”.


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