Ischemic stroke | Wikipedia audio article

This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:

00:03:13 1 Classification
00:03:54 1.1 Definition
00:04:59 1.2 Ischemic
00:06:58 1.3 Hemorrhagic
00:08:32 2 Signs and symptoms
00:09:15 2.1 Early recognition
00:10:56 2.2 Subtypes
00:13:39 2.3 Associated symptoms
00:14:07 3 Causes
00:14:16 3.1 Thrombotic stroke
00:16:09 3.2 Embolic stroke
00:18:24 3.3 Cerebral hypoperfusion
00:19:25 3.4 Venous thrombosis
00:19:52 3.5 Intracerebral hemorrhage
00:20:51 3.6 Other
00:21:04 3.7 Silent stroke
00:22:14 4 Pathophysiology
00:22:23 4.1 Ischemic
00:26:34 4.2 Hemorrhagic
00:27:20 5 Diagnosis
00:28:03 5.1 Physical examination
00:28:27 5.2 Imaging
00:29:48 5.3 Underlying cause
00:31:44 5.4 Misdiagnosis
00:33:08 6 Prevention
00:34:05 6.1 Risk factors
00:35:49 6.1.1 Blood pressure
00:36:47 6.1.2 Blood lipids
00:37:16 6.1.3 Diabetes mellitus
00:37:43 6.1.4 Anticoagulation drugs
00:39:23 6.1.5 Surgery
00:41:01 6.1.6 Diet
00:41:23 6.2 Women
00:41:58 6.3 Previous stroke or TIA
00:43:15 7 Management
00:43:24 7.1 Ischemic stroke
00:44:27 7.1.1 Thrombolysis
00:46:35 7.1.2 Surgery
00:47:49 7.2 Hemorrhagic stroke
00:48:50 7.3 Stroke unit
00:49:22 7.4 Rehabilitation
00:55:56 7.5 Self-management
00:56:47 8 Prognosis
01:00:44 9 Epidemiology
01:03:09 10 History
01:05:12 11 Research
01:05:21 11.1 Angioplasty and stenting
01:05:39 11.2 Neuroprotection

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A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death. There are two main types of stroke: ischemic, due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic, due to bleeding. They result in part of the brain not functioning properly. Signs and symptoms of a stroke may include an inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding or speaking, dizziness, or loss of vision to one side. Signs and symptoms often appear soon after the stroke has occurred. If symptoms last less than one or two hours it is known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or mini-stroke. A hemorrhagic stroke may also be associated with a severe headache. The symptoms of a stroke can be permanent. Long-term complications may include pneumonia or loss of bladder control.The main risk factor for stroke is high blood pressure. Other risk factors include tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, a previous TIA, and atrial fibrillation. An ischemic stroke is typically caused by blockage of a blood vessel, though there are also less common causes. A hemorrhagic stroke is caused by either bleeding directly into the brain or into the space between the brain’s membranes. Bleeding may occur due to a ruptured brain aneurysm. Diagnosis is typically based on a physical exam and supported by medical imaging such as a CT scan or MRI scan. A CT scan can rule out bleeding, but may not necessarily rule out ischemia, which early on typically does not show up on a CT scan. Other tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood tests are done to determine risk factors and rule out other possible causes. Low blood sugar may cause similar symptoms.Prevention includes decreasing risk factors, as well as possibly aspirin, statins, surgery to open up the arteries to the brain in those with problematic narrowing, and warfarin in those with atrial fibrillation. A stroke or TIA often requires emergency care. An ischemic stroke, if detected within three to four and half hours, may be treatable with a medication that can break down the clot. Aspirin should be used. Some hemorrhagic strokes benefit from surgery. Treatment to try to recover lost function is called stroke rehabilitation and ideally takes place in a stroke unit; however, these are not available in much of the world.In 2013 approximately 6.9 million people had an ischemic stroke and 3.4 million people had a hemorrhagic stroke. In 2015 th …


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