Blackheads extraction in the Ear with blackheads extractor tool
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Blackheads are a type of comedo. Comedones occur when the pores in the skin become plugged with dead skin cells and an oily, protective substance known as sebum.
The top of the blackhead, which is visible on the surface of the skin, has a dark color.
Normally, hair grows from hair follicles in the pores, and the sebum-producing sebaceous glands lie underneath.
When these pores are plugged, the dead skin cells in the open pore react with oxygen in the air and turn black, forming a blackhead.
This is often confused with trapped dirt, but the development of blackheads is not related to the cleanliness of the skin.
Other acne lesions are usually closed, but in blackheads, the skin around the clogged pore opens, air gets in causing the collected sebum oil or dead skin cells to oxidize and turn black or sometimes yellowish.
Blackheads appear most frequently on the face, back, neck, chest, arms, and shoulders. There are more hair follicles in these areas.
Some factors can increase the chance of developing blackheads.
Age and hormonal changes are an important factor. Like other symptoms of acne, blackheads are most common during puberty, when the change in hormone levels triggers a spike in sebum production. However, they can appear at any age.
Androgen, the male sex hormone, triggers greater secretion of sebum and a higher turnover of skin cells around puberty. Both boys and girls experience higher levels of androgens during adolescence.
After puberty, hormonal changes related to menstruation, pregnancy, and the use of birth control pills can also bring on blackheads in women.
Overproduction of skin cells by the body can cause blackheads.
Other factors include:
the blocking or covering pores by cosmetics and clothing
shaving and other activities that open the hair follicles
high humidity and grease in the immediate environment
some health conditions, such as stress, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
medications that encourage rapid skin cell turnover
use of some steroid-based drugs, such as corticosteroids
Contrary to popular belief, poor hygiene does not directly cause blackheads. Excessive scrubbing in an attempt to remove them can make them worse.
What you need to know about acne
Is your acne some way beyond blackheads?
Cleansing: Special scrubs for gently exfoliating the face can help. Look for those that are fragrance-free and for sensitive skin, and avoid anything that makes your skin overly dry.
While it is important to dry up the skin by decreasing excessive oil production, drying it too much may make matters worse due to stimulating the extra production of oil by the glands.
Make-up and cosmetics: Use non-comedogenic products that do not clog pores instead should keep the pores clear and open and reduce the buildup of dead skin. Non-comedogenic makeup is available to purchase online from various brands.
Prescription treatments: Azelaic acid, salicylic acid, and benzoyl peroxide are also available in both prescription and over the counter (OTC) forms for non-inflammatory acne. These are topical treatments, applied directly to the skin.
Prescription medications that contain vitamin A, such as tretinoin, tazarotene, and adapalene, may be prescribed to keep plugs from forming in the hair follicles and promote the more rapid turnover of skin cells.
However, most people do not seek these treatments until their acne has worsened to become an infected or more severe form, such as pimples. It might be best to have a skin care specialist remove the blackheads if they become bothersome.
Underlying conditions: Any other skin problems, such as eczema or rosacea, can make treating blackheads a little harder. The condition should be treated before the acne, as successful treatment may lead to improvements in the blackheads.
Rest and relaxation: Getting enough rest and avoiding stress can also help, as stress can trigger sebum production. Exercise can help reduce stress.
Food: Research has not confirmed that cutting out fries or chocolate either will or will not reduce acne, but a healthful, balanced diet with plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables is beneficial for overall health. It may reduce the risk of skin lesions becoming infected.
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