Antibiotics | Wikipedia audio article

This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:

00:01:53 1 Medical uses
00:03:38 1.1 Administration
00:05:04 1.2 Prevalence
00:05:43 2 Side-effects
00:07:08 2.1 Correlation with obesity
00:08:10 3 Interactions
00:08:19 3.1 Birth control pills
00:10:15 3.2 Alcohol
00:11:30 4 Pharmacodynamics
00:12:41 4.1 Combination therapy
00:13:52 5 Classes
00:15:13 6 Production
00:16:26 7 Resistance
00:20:38 7.1 Misuse
00:25:11 8 History
00:25:50 8.1 Synthetic antibiotics derived from dyes
00:28:29 8.2 Penicillin and other natural antibiotics
00:33:26 9 Etymology
00:35:15 10 Research
00:35:24 10.1 Alternatives
00:36:03 10.2 Resistance and modifying agents
00:36:59 10.3 Vaccines
00:37:48 10.4 Phage therapy
00:39:32 10.5 Phytochemicals
00:40:45 10.6 New antibiotics development

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An antibiotic is a type of antimicrobial substance active against bacteria and is the most important type of antibacterial agent for fighting bacterial infections. Antibiotic medications are widely used in the treatment and prevention of such infections. They may either kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. A limited number of antibiotics also possess antiprotozoal activity. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses such as the common cold or influenza; drugs which inhibit viruses are termed antiviral drugs or antivirals rather than antibiotics.
Sometimes, the term antibiotic (which means “opposing life”, from New Latin based on ancient Greek roots) is broadly used to refer to any substance used against microbes, but in the usual medical usage, antibiotics (such as penicillin) are those produced naturally (by one microorganism fighting another), whereas nonantibiotic antibacterials (such as sulfonamides and antiseptics) are fully synthetic. However, both classes have the same goal of killing or preventing the growth of microorganisms, and both are included in antimicrobial chemotherapy. “Antibacterials” include antiseptic drugs, antibacterial soaps, and chemical disinfectants, whereas antibiotics are an important class of antibacterials used more specifically in medicine and sometimes in livestock feed.
Antibiotics revolutionized medicine in the 20th century. However, their effectiveness and easy access have also led to their overuse, and some bacteria have developed resistance. This has led to widespread problems, and the World Health Organization have classified antimicrobial resistance as a “serious threat [that] is no longer a prediction for the future, it is happening right now in every region of the world and has the potential to affect anyone, of any age, in any country”.


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