Antibiotic resistance | Wikipedia audio article

This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:

00:04:05 1 Definition
00:04:39 2 Overview
00:05:48 3 Causes
00:07:23 3.1 Human medicine
00:11:33 3.2 Veterinary medicine
00:12:38 3.3 Natural occurrence
00:14:42 3.4 Water pollution
00:17:12 4 Prevention
00:18:02 4.1 Duration of antibiotics
00:18:42 4.2 Monitoring and mapping
00:19:56 4.3 Limiting antibiotic use
00:21:12 4.3.1 At the hospital level
00:21:50 4.3.2 At the level of GP
00:23:19 4.3.3 At the individual level
00:23:45 4.3.4 Country examples
00:24:24 4.4 Water, sanitation, hygiene
00:27:06 4.5 Industrial wastewater treatment
00:27:31 4.6 Management in animal use
00:27:40 4.6.1 Europe
00:28:40 4.6.2 United States
00:30:07 4.7 Global action plans and awareness
00:31:39 4.7.1 Antibiotic Awareness Week
00:32:43 5 Mechanisms and organisms
00:32:53 5.1 Fundamentals
00:37:02 5.2 Bacteria
00:39:38 5.3 Viruses
00:40:49 5.4 Fungi
00:42:09 5.5 Parasites
00:43:34 6 History
00:45:36 7 Society and culture
00:46:47 7.1 Legal frameworks
00:47:46 7.1.1 U.S.
00:50:21 7.2 Policies
00:50:57 8 Further research
00:51:14 8.1 Vaccines
00:52:23 8.2 Alternating therapy
00:53:28 8.3 Development of new drugs
00:58:12 8.4 Rapid diagnostics
00:59:40 8.5 Phage therapy

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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe. The term antibiotic resistance (AR or ABR) is a subset of AMR, as it applies only to bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics. Resistant microbes are more difficult to treat, requiring alternative medications or higher doses of antimicrobials. These approaches may be more expensive, more toxic or both. Microbes resistant to multiple antimicrobials are called multidrug resistant (MDR). Those considered extensively drug resistant (XDR) or totally drug resistant (TDR) are sometimes called “superbugs”.Resistance arises through one of three mechanisms: natural resistance in certain types of bacteria, genetic mutation, or by one species acquiring resistance from another. All classes of microbes can develop resistance. Fungi develop antifungal resistance. Viruses develop antiviral resistance. Protozoa develop antiprotozoal resistance, and bacteria develop antibiotic resistance. Resistance can appear spontaneously because of random mutations. However, extended use of antimicrobials appears to encourage selection for mutations which can render antimicrobials ineffective.Preventive measures include only using antibiotics when needed, thereby stopping misuse of antibiotics or antimicrobials. Narrow-spectrum antibiotics are preferred over broad-spectrum antibiotics when possible, as effectively and accurately targeting specific organisms is less likely to cause resistance. For people who take these medications at home, education about proper use is essential. Health care providers can minimize spread of resistant infections by use of proper sanitation and hygiene, including handwashing and disinfecting between patients, and should encourage the same of the patient, visitors, and family members.Rising drug resistance is caused mainly by use of antimicrobials in humans and other animals, and spread of resistant strains between the two. Growing resistance has also been linked to dumping of inadequately treated effluents from the pharmaceutical industry, especially in countries where bulk drugs are manufactured. Antibiotics increase selective pressure in bacterial populations, causing vulnerable bacteria to die; this increases the percentage of resistant bacteria which continue growing. Even at very low levels of antibiotic, resistant bacteria can have a growth advantage and grow faster than vulnerable bacteria. With resistance to antibiotics becoming more common there is greater need fo …


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